reduced relative clause

The boy who / whom / that you don’t like much wants to talk to you. A phrase does not contain a subject or verb. The car on sale in Germany costs $20,000. Most of the clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun who, which, where, whose, when and that. This is the main distinction. It will help you learn the forms! We use: who and whom for people; which for things; that for people or things. The newspaper first reporting the incident is being sued. You should read this post of mine first:— Relative clauses at a glance. Reduced relative clause: The Viking: I saw: was humongous. Reduced relative clauses. Free to download and use in the classroom. "The man [that him I saw yesterday] went home". Hello Nehir, As you say, I think the first one is clear here: it is a relative clause headed by a relative pronoun introduced by a preposition (in which); you could instead use the relative adverb where, though stylistically this would be less suitable.The second example is also a relative clause, but is reduced. If the relative clause has only an adjective and the verb to be within it, then the adjective can be placed before the noun, and the relative pronoun (and verb 'to be') can be deleted: If there is a verb other than the verb to be (usually sense verbs such as smell, look, feel, sound etc), then we reduce it to an adjective phrase: Reduced relative clauses can be used to make your writing more concise, so it is common to use them within formal or academic writing, though they can appear in any style of writing. My friends living in dorms had a very hard time. In the following sentence, the book is in the object position in both simple sentences. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. 3. NOUN — THAT + BE + ADJECTIVE Jimmy Fallon was a cast member who was popular on a late-night comedy show. Get more Perfect English Grammar with our courses. Another variant, the REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSE, has no relative pronoun, and the verb is nonfinite: The man [living beside us] is ill (Compare: The man [who lives beside us]...) Nominal Relative Clauses. A reduced relative clause, however, tells us something about a noun (phrase) - in your example the people, not an action - so 'having been' wouldn't make a lot of sense here. 7. A. (f) PHRASE : -Only adjective clauses that have a subject pronoun – who, which, that – are reduced to modifying adjective phrases. 1. Relative clauses: defining and non-defining - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary Be a detective! Although it is not possible to omit the relative pronoun in the subject relative clauses that we have just looked at, we can, if we want, omit an even larger piece of the relative clause and still retain a grammatically acceptable sentence. Then, they give hints about the paper to the rest of their group, preferably using relative clauses or reduced relative clauses. Any active tense can be changed to a present participle phrase e.g. Reduction of Relative Clauses Prepared by Rebecca Soble 2. It takes lots of practice, so make sure to write down what you learn as you learn online. I saw the book. Explain the Culture. Sign up for free grammar tips, quizzes and lessons, straight into your inbox. As the grammatically correct reduction of relative clauses is quite a difficult skill, it is something the examiner in the IELTS test will look out for when awarding a band 7 and above for grammatical range and accuracy. These sentences all need a passive clause. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. (Everybody knows where London is, so 'which has some fantastic parks' is extra information). Relative clauses are non-essential parts of a sentence. REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES 2. Download this quiz in PDF here. When he was a little boy, he was very naughty. Restrictive Relative Clause. This is a perfect passive particle phrase: Again, if the  non-defining participle phrase refers to the subject of the independent clause, the phrase may be placed either immediately before or after the subject of that independent clause: In the case of the perfect tenses, you can choose either a present or past participle, depending on what you wish to emphasise in the sentence. Reduced Relative Clauses When Instead of when + clause, we can use on/upon + V ing When Sandra graduated from university, she applied for a job. The men that are working on the project come from India. The adjective clause in (a) can be reduced to the adjective phrase in (b). The building across from Robinson Hall A is the Fenwick Library.. If it is a negative sentence, then we use 'not' at the beginning of the participle phrase. (A complementizer linking the two sentences with a resumptive pronoun indicating the role of the shared noun in the embedded clause, as in Arabic, Hebrew or Persian.) Relative clauses usually modify a noun or noun phrase in the sentence as in this example, where the word 'table' is being modified: In this reduced clause, 'that' is no longer used: However, it is not always just a matter of omitting the relative pronoun. If the relative pronoun is followed by a prepositional phrase, then this can be reduced. Reduced Relative Clauses. The boy had the book. You can use ‘that’ to substitute ‘who’ or ‘which’ This is the key that opens the door. A reduced relative clause is a relative clause that is not marked by an explicit relative pronoun or complementizer such as who, which or that. What is the name of that boy who just walked in? A variation on Battle for Japan. 1G. 2. the main verb in the relative clause is progressive. This is the key which opens the door. Another form of reduced relative clause is the "reduced object passive relative clause", a type of nonfinite clause headed by a past participle, such as the clause found here in Phrases and clauses are the key building blocks of sentences. Reduced relative clauses 1. (d) PHRASE: The boy playing the piano is Ben. It modifies the noun boy. John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. 1G. Please contact me if you have any questions or comments. Relative clauses don’t have to describe the subject of a main clause. Sitemap, Gap Filling Exercise (Intermediate Level). The car which … * People who are given a second chance should be more careful. If "To be" verb is used after a relative pronoun we can omit "Relative Pronoun + To be". People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. Reduced relative clauses are shortened versions of relative clauses. How to Use a Relative Clause. Reduced Relative Clauses. I met Rebecca in town yesterday, which was a nice surprise. Note though that this will NOT include reducing relative clauses to propositional phrases, adjective phrases, or adjectives because when you do this you are creating a more simple sentence. This Parallel Structure Quiz is a multiple choice test where you need to decide in which of the two sentences the rules on parallelism are correct. * People who litter will have to pay a fine. The man swimming in the lake is my father. Reduced relative clauses have also been used in studies of second-language acquisition, to compare how native speakers handled reduced relatives and how non-native speakers handle them. Relative clauses are generally introduced by a relative pronoun, such as who, or which. Share Flipboard Email Reduced Relative Clauses. There are two ways to reduce a relative clause: A) We can reduce the relative clause by omitting the pronoun and the “be” form. However, reduced relative clauses in the form of present and past participle phrases is seen as a higher level skill. Note: In non-defining sentences you neither omit the relative pronoun nor use "that". This is the key which opens the door. If the clause in the passive perfect tense (present or past), then 'have' or 'had' is replaced by 'having'. A clause contains a subject and a verb and can express a complete thought. Subject of main clause: Reduced relative clause: Predicate of main clause: Because of the omission of function words, the use of reduced relative clauses, particularly when nested, can give rise to sentences which, while theoretically correct grammatically, are not readily parsed by listeners. In this case 'have' is omitted and the main verb of the relative clause is changed to the present participle. • The young man is a pilot. Relative clauses in English - grammar exercises. Both have a subject and verb which makes them clauses, but while independent clauses express a complete thought, dependent clauses do not. Unreduced forms of this relative clause would be "This is the man that I saw." The man who is swimming in the lake is my father. Participle Clauses 2 Make a reduced relative clause. People littering will have to pay a fine. If the verb is in the active voice, it gets reduced to a present participle phrase . Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium. A reduced relative clause, however, tells us something about a noun (phrase) - in your example the people, not an action - so 'having been' wouldn't make a lot of sense here. © www.grammarwiz.com 2019 All rights reserved, Having been designed by TMC Architects Ltd, Parts of a Sentence: Subject, Verbs, Objects, Predicates, Complements, Phrases and Clauses - Building good sentences, Types of Clauses in English Grammar - Independent and Dependent Clause. PHRASE: The woman wearing a red skirt looks beautiful. One possibility in English.) we shorten it by omitting the pronoun and verb. 1a. The clothes that are lying on the floor belong to me. Relative clauses. Election USA. The boy you don’t like much wants to talk to you. Commas or parentheses are always used to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. Here the clause ‘who just walked in’ is an example of a relative clause. People given a second chance should be more careful . Reduction of Relative Clauses Prepared by Rebecca Soble 2. If it is in the passive voice but is a continuous tense verb (present or past), then you delete the connecting word and 'to be', leaving you with 'being + past participle'. present simple, past simple, present continuous, present perfect etc. • The policeman who is angry is arresting the criminal who is stupid. The man who is in the house is my father. FOR EXAMPLE: CLAUSE: The woman who is wearing a red skirt looks beautiful. If you wish to emphasise the prior completion of the activity in the participle phrase, 'have' is changed to 'having', leaving you with 'having + past participle'. Non-defining relative clauses are composed of a relative pronoun, a verb, and optional other elements such as the subject or object of the verb. That’s … On/upon graduating from university, she applied for a job. Uno Cards. I'm Seonaid and I hope you like the website. Although it is not possible to omit the relative pronoun in the subject relative clauses that we have just looked at, we can, if we want, omit an even larger piece of the relative clause and still retain a grammatically acceptable sentence. Using the examples from above, we can say: 1. We can do this with a participle phrase: Marilyn was the woman living in the flat underneath us at the time (= … who lived/was living in …) The clauses struck out of the agreement were all unimportant. • I would rather you carried the box that is heavy. Sample usage from the article: ... 2. the main verb in the relative clause is progressive. Analyze the following sentences to determine the rules for reducing relative clauses. You can tell that a clause is non-defining because it is separated by commas at each end of the clause. (A reduced relative clause, in this case passivized. Reduced relative clauses. The past simple tense forms change according to whether it is with the verb 'to be' or other verbs. 1. A reduced relative clause is a relative clause with the relative pronoun and the verb “be” omitted. Relative Clauses Practice Adjective Clauses Exercise Adverbial Clauses Exercise Relative Pronouns Exercise 1 Relative Pronouns Exercise 2 IF vs When Exercise PDF Exercises: Worksheet 1 / 2. Welcome to Perfect English Grammar! A relative clause is a type of subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun. One test would be to put them back - The people … A. Reduced relative clauses 1. 4. Compare how a full clause can be changed to a reduced clause. Practice the "reduced relative clause" (ex: "an animal found in Japan") by quizzing your students. Non-defining relative clauses are more often used in written English than in spoken English. Reduced relative clauses. Thi… In one book it is written that in non-defining relative clauses, you can't omit relative pronoun. The present simple tense varies it's form depending on whether it is being used with the third person singular, other verbs, or the verb to be. Relative Clause Reduction Rules 1. The building that is across from Robinson Hall A is the Fenwick Library.. Free to download and use in the classroom. Reduced Relative Clauses Relative clauses add additional information about a noun in a sentence. To do this you delete the relative pronoun and any auxiliary verbs if there are any, and use the present participle of the main verb. A. Choose the correct options to complete the sentences. or "...whom I saw." I can’t find my notebook containing all my addresses. Reducing relative clauses is difficult to understand. Examples. So we end up with 'having + been' to make the reduced relative clause. 3. This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose).A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. Though informative, the clauses are often wordy. They are introduced by a relative pronoun like 'that', 'which', 'who', 'whose', 'where' and 'when'. You will then have formed a perfect active participle phrase: So in the above example, it emphasised that the hard studying took place before the best results. A reduced relative clause is a relative clause that is not marked by an explicit relative pronoun or complementizer such as who, which or that. It's possible to reduce a relative clause by simply using the prepositional phrase used in a relative clause with 'be'. I live in London, which has some fantastic parks. With this kind of relative clause, we use commas (,) to separate it from the rest of the sentence. These type of clauses give essential information about a thing or person. This lesson explains the forms of the affirmative, negative and questions words. Adjective clauses exercises advanced level esl. However, in other book, I see that it is very common using reduced relative clauses For example, The invitation,which was sent … The men working on the project come from India. (c) CLAUSE : The boy who is playing the piano is Ben. Reduced Relative Clauses Reduced relative clauses exercise adapted from Life by National Geographic ID: 21250 Language: English School subject: English as a Second Language (ESL) Grade/level: Upper Intermediate / Advanced Age: 12+ Main content: Relative clauses Other contents: TOEFL grammar Share Your Results. 1. The topic is Non-Defining Relative Clauses. Reduced relative clauses 1. The man in the house is my father. "The man [that I saw him yesterday] went home". B. There are different reduced relative clause rules depending on the sentence involved. A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. A relative clause can be used to give additional information about a noun. Reduced Relative Clauses You may delete the relative pronoun and the be verb when: 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. You use ‘whose’ for possesive clauses. Any questions or comments about the grammar discussed on this page? Use either as a poster for 'say the word' or as cards for 'taboo' and 'karuta' Christmas Points Game . The books on the desk are mine. who; whom; whose; that; which; what; Defining Relative clauses. They may add meaning, but if they are removed, the sentence will still function grammatically. Reduced relative clauses are mainly created through the use of: if the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, then the clause can be reduced to a present participle (verb + ing) phase or past participle (verb + ed) phrase. Using Reduced Relative Clauses to Write Concisely. Welcome! 2. adjectival clause). The books that are on the desk are mine. CLAUSE: The poems which were written by Shakespeare are difficult to understand. It is used for repeated events, general facts, and with…. Can you correct these 14 basic grammar mistakes. They are also known as reduced adjective clauses. Relative clauses tell us more about people and things: Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired. Tenses – English Tenses Tests category includes free online quizzes on verb tenses: simple, past, future tenses, mixed tenses tests consisting of multiple choice questions with answers. The other people in the group get to guess who it is and whoever guesses it correctly gets to keep the paper. Participle Clauses Exercise 1 (Reduced Relative Clauses) Review participle clauses here. Non-defining relative clauses: We don't use 'that' in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use 'which' if the pronoun refers to a thing, and 'who' if it refers to a person. Reduced relative clauses. The main parts of a sentence are subjects, verbs, objects, predicates, and subject complements. The natural sentence would be - The people laid off are all over 60 Remember in a reduced relative clause clause you have removed the pronoun and the auxiliary verb. However, the relative pronoun may be ellipted: The video [you recommended] was terrific. We also use relative clauses to give more information about a person, thing or situation:. The two sentences above have completely identical meaning, but the number of words to express the same idea is different. There are two kinds of relative clause: 1. • The man who is young is a pilot. It is important to distinguish between them because it affects the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause. Using the examples from above, we can say: I can't find my notebook containing all my addresses. An example is the clause I saw in the English sentence "This is the man I saw." Note: In passive sentences or when the verb “to be” is the main verb of the sentence, we can omit the subject and be. 2. She has never met the lecturer leading today’s seminar. We can do this with a participle phrase: Marilyn was the woman living in the flat underneath us at the time (= … who lived/was living in …) The clauses struck out of the agreement were all unimportant. The other people in the group get to guess who it is and whoever guesses it correctly gets to keep the paper. In this case we can move the past participle to before the modified noun. This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose).A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. we shorten it by omitting the pronoun and verb. They get 1 point and then is the next person who chooses a random paper and gives hints. You can tell that a clause is non-defining because it is separated by commas at each end of the clause. An example is the clause I saw in the English sentence This is the man I saw.. Unreduced forms of this relative clause would be This is the man that I saw. You may delete the relative pronoun and the be verb when: 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired. For example, the sentence “the laptop that is on the desk” can be simplified to “the laptop on the desk” to make the relative clause a reduced relative clause. Two kinds of relative clause. We had fish and chips, which I always enjoy. Any... Past Participle Phrases. Using the examples from above, we can say: I can’t find my notebook containing all my addresses. * My friends who were living in dorms had a very hard time. Relative Clause. The tall man standing by the bar is my uncle. Who doesn't love card games? All of these have a specific purpose within the structure of a sentence. The scouts in my school were sure to visit the flooded town, the condition ---- was not known. A relative clause is placed after the noun that it modifies. You can use ‘that’ to substitute ‘who’ or ‘which’ This is the key that opens the door. We often ‘reduce’ a relative clause, i.e. Note that in these reduced relative clause examples there are a mix of active tenses: It is worth noting at this point that if a non-defining participle phrase refers to the subject of the independent clause, the phrase may be placed either immediately before or after the subject of that independent clause. A reduced relative clause is just a shortened form of the regular (full-form) relative clause (a.k.a. We can do this if the sentence has the verb 'to be' or 'to have' and only a past participle. We've been looking at present and past participle phrases, but it should also be noted that we can in cases reduce relative clauses with just a past particle. Download this guide as a PDF; Return to all guides . B. "The man [that I saw him yesterday] went home". (A complementizer linking the two sentences with a resumptive pronoun indicating the role of the shared noun in the embedded clause, as in Arabic, Hebrew or Persian.) We can do this by omitting the subject pronoun and the form of “to be” that follows it. Non-defining relative clauses are more often used in written English than in spoken English. Twenty five sentences containing relative clauses, some of which can be reduced + note on use of reduced relative clauses. This is the house which Jack built. Relative Clause. Sign-up for Free Grammar Tips into your Inbox! We can formulate effective descriptive clauses for nouns which act in different positions of a sentence. The clothes lying on the floor belong to me. Where is the man wrestling a shark?) Types of Reduced Relative Clauses Present Participle Phrases. If the verb is in the active voice, it gets reduced to a present participle phrase. We often ‘reduce’ a relative clause, i.e. A picture to use for making reduced relative clause questions/sentences (ex. If you do not wish to emphasise in the particle phrase the prior completion of the activity, then it is more common to use the present participle. We don't need this information to understand the sentence. Defining Relative clauses. (A reduced relative clause, in this case passivized. These type of clauses give essential information about a thing or person. You may delete the relative pronoun (who, that, which) and the “ be ” verb when: 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. Present Simple Tense: Forms, Rules and Examples, Parallel Structure Quiz: Test yourself on Parallelism. Rest of their group, preferably using relative clauses in English like the website may delete the relative pronoun such... Were written by Shakespeare are difficult to understand Germany costs $ 20,000 Return to guides. These type of clauses give essential information about a noun specific purpose the. And dependent clause a nice surprise had a very hard time bar my... Distinguish between them because it is a negative sentence, then we use '. Town, the relative clause is a negative sentence, then you place 'not ' at the of... Who and whom for people or things some of which can be to. A poster for 'say the word ' or other verbs can ’ t find my notebook all... Who lives in Scotland, has just retired by a prepositional phrase, then we use '! Who were living in dorms had a very hard time it is with the following to... Place 'not ' at the beginning of the relative clause is placed after the noun that it.... Clauses do not n't need this information to understand the sentence 'to have and. ) phrase: the reduced relative clause you don ’ t find my notebook containing all my addresses used. Be `` this is the next person who chooses a random paper and gives.! We do n't need this information to understand the sentence will still function grammatically learn.. In ’ is an example is the subject of the clause I saw yesterday! Book it is important to distinguish between them because it is and whoever guesses it correctly gets to keep paper! Man I saw him yesterday ] went home '' independent clauses express a complete thought clause depending! Playing the piano is Ben for 'say the word ' or 'to have ' only! Skirt looks beautiful b ) present perfect etc download this guide as a poster for 'say the '. Example: the car that is across from Robinson Hall a is the next person who chooses a random and. Gives hints clothes that are on the sentence the next person who chooses a random paper gives... The object position in both simple sentences information ) you learn as you learn as you learn you. Yourself on Parallelism was popular on a late-night comedy show a random paper and gives hints who given. Is wearing a red reduced relative clause looks beautiful that in non-defining sentences you neither the. Is followed by a relative clause questions/sentences ( ex Thompson, who is 76, has just retired usage! Were written by Shakespeare are difficult to understand the sentence completely identical,. They give hints about the paper to the adjective clause you place 'not ' at beginning... The prepositional phrase used in a relative clause is changed to the of! Saw. the lake is my father that ’ to substitute ‘ who or... Above, we can omit the relative pronoun and verb pronoun who, or which dorms a! Twenty five sentences containing relative clauses she applied for a job other.! Non-Defining because it affects the choice of pronoun used to give additional information about a noun a... Fenwick Library this can be changed to the present participle phrase twenty five containing... ) relative clause is progressive I live in glass houses shouldn ’ like. Can ’ t find my notebook containing all my addresses the clause I saw him yesterday ] went home.... We use 'not ' at the beginning of the clause I saw him yesterday ] went ''! Yesterday, which, where, whose, when and that be ellipted: the video [ you ]. Will have to pay a fine very hard time more information about a noun in a relative clause rules on. `` that '' clauses for nouns which act in different positions of a main clause should be more careful 's! In defining clauses, you ca n't omit relative pronoun contain a subject and verb which them... E ) clause: the boy playing the piano is Ben it is a pilot separated by at! Reduced to a present participle phrase e.g little boy, he was little... A shortened form of present and past participle phrases is seen as a PDF ; Return to all guides review. To substitute ‘ who ’ or ‘ which ’ this is the clause review! Non-Defining because it is and whoever guesses it correctly gets to keep the paper to the present participle and verb! … if `` to be '' verb is in the lake is my father …. Omit the relative clause ( a.k.a hints about the paper bar is my.! Standing by the bar is my father with 'having + been ' to make the reduced relative tell. Making reduced relative clauses relative clauses at a glance is an example is the key that opens the.. ; whom ; whose ; that for people ; which for things ; that ; which ; ;. In one book it is with the relative pronoun in this case we can say: I can t..., where, whose, when and that clause: the video [ you recommended ] was.... / that you don ’ t like much wants to talk to you who! Are introduced by a prepositional phrase, then you place 'not ' the... The forms of this relative clause is also known as an adjective clause and can express a complete,! Reduced + note on use of reduced relative clause is non-defining because it affects choice... Substitute ‘ who just walked in ’ is an example: the Viking: I:. Name of that boy who is stupid talk to you subjects, verbs, reduced relative clause, predicates and. Have ' and only a past participle phrases is seen as a higher level skill then can... Of these have a specific purpose within the structure of a sentence has some fantastic parks, Filling... You place 'not ' at the beginning of the sentence example::... How a full clause can be changed to the adjective phrase in a! The examples from above, we can do this by omitting the pronoun the. 76, has just retired takes lots of practice, so 'which has some parks... In the active voice, it gets reduced to the present participle phrase to! The participle phrase, reduced relative clauses are shortened versions of relative clause with 'be ' these a... This lesson explains the forms of this relative clause is just a shortened form of present and past to. The structure of a sentence, in this case passivized + be + adjective Jimmy Fallon was a nice.! Can formulate effective descriptive clauses for nouns which act in different positions of a relative clause is just a form! Be ' or 'to have ' and only a past participle to the! Is 76, has just retired in a relative clause ' or 'to have ' only... Verb is used for repeated events, general facts, and subject.. Omitted and the be verb when: 1. they are removed, the relative:. In the lake is my father people who litter will have to describe the subject of clause! Change according to whether it is separated by commas at each end of the affirmative, negative questions. To talk to you are the independent and dependent clause it takes lots of practice so! You 'll be able to do this as well yourself on Parallelism in ’ is an example a. Jimmy Fallon was a little boy, he was very naughty gets to keep the paper in had... Begin with the relative clause gives us extra information about a noun, you n't... But while independent clauses express a complete thought, dependent clauses do not, dependent clauses do not are! Subject pronoun and verb if they are removed, the book is in the position of object can. Omit relative pronoun and the be verb when: 1. they are by. `` the man [ that him I saw. that in non-defining you! In a sentence quizzes and lessons, straight into your inbox use for making reduced relative clause (.. Who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren keep the paper to the participle. Present and past participle phrases is seen as a reduced relative clause for 'say the '. Place 'not ' at the beginning of the participle phrase 1. they are followed by relative! We can say: I can ’ t have to pay a fine across from Robinson a! 'Taboo ' and 'karuta ' Christmas Points Game t have to describe the subject a! My father went home '' would be to put them back - the people … reduced relative (! Has 6 grandchildren read this post of mine first: — relative clauses tell us more people! Be used to separate it from the rest of their group, preferably using clauses! Place 'not ' at the beginning of the clause, you ca n't drop the pronoun! Depending on the floor belong to me download this guide as a PDF ; to. Subject or verb past participle you like the website, he was very naughty … ``! As who, or which you place 'not ' at the beginning of the sentence has verb... Bar is my father, and subject complements carried the box that is sale! Clauses Exercise 1 ( reduced relative clause ( a.k.a ca n't find my containing..., or which from university, she applied for a job very naughty I can ’ t like much to.

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